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J/ApJS/190/1         A survey of stellar families              (Raghavan+, 2010)

A survey of stellar families: multiplicity of solar-type stars. Raghavan D., McAlister H.A., Henry T.J., Latham D.W., Marcy G.W., Mason B.D., Gies D.R., White R.J., Ten Brummelaar T.A. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 190, 1-42 (2010)> =2010ApJS..190....1R
ADC_Keywords: Surveys ; Stars, G-type ; Stars, double and multiple ; Proper motions Keywords: binaries: general - planetary systems - stars: solar-type - stars: statistics - surveys Abstract: We present the results of a comprehensive assessment of companions to solar-type stars. A sample of 454 stars, including the Sun, was selected from the Hipparcos catalog with π>40mas, σπ/π<0.05, 0.5≤B-V≤1.0 (∼F6-K3), and constrained by absolute magnitude and color to exclude evolved stars. These criteria are equivalent to selecting all dwarf and subdwarf stars within 25pc with V-band flux between 0.1 and 10 times that of the Sun, giving us a physical basis for the term "solar-type". New observational aspects of this work include surveys for (1) very close companions with long-baseline interferometry at the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array, (2) close companions with speckle interferometry, and (3) wide proper-motion companions identified by blinking multi-epoch archival images. In addition, we include the results from extensive radial-velocity monitoring programs and evaluate companion information from various catalogs covering many different techniques. The results presented here include four new common proper-motion companions discovered by blinking archival images. Additionally, the spectroscopic data searched reveal five new stellar companions. Our synthesis of results from many methods and sources results in a thorough evaluation of stellar and brown dwarf companions to nearby Sun-like stars. The overall observed fractions of single, double, triple, and higher-order systems are 56%±2%, 33%±2%, 8%±1%, and 3%±1%, respectively, counting all confirmed stellar and brown dwarf companions. Description: The sample of stars studied in this work is comprised of 454 solar-type primary stars in the solar neighborhood (see Table 1), selected from the Hipparcos catalog. This multiplicity survey of solar-type stars synthesizes companion information from various imaging and spectroscopic observations and augments them with a thorough examination of reported companions in the various catalogs and publications. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 89 454 Volume-limited sample of 454 solar-type stars table4.dat 90 88 CPM (Common Proper Motion) companions identified table5.dat 109 38 Spectral type, proper motion, and photometry of CPM (Common Proper Motion) candidates table6.dat 62 298 Optical WDS entries table8.dat 89 91 Accelerating proper motion solutions table11.dat 96 98 Visual orbit solutions table13.dat 105 799 Survey stars and their stellar, brown dwarf, and planetary companions table17.dat 55 454 Physical parameters of the sample stars table18.dat 64 213 Spectral types and masses of the companions refs.dat 199 135 References for table 1, 5, 11, 17 and 18 notes.dat 84 905 Notes on individual systems (from section 4.3)
See also: B/wds : The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2010) I/239 : The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997) I/311 : Hipparcos, the New Reduction (van Leeuwen, 2007) V/70 : Nearby Stars, Preliminary 3rd Version (Gliese+ 1991) J/A+A/341/121 : Visual binary orbits and masses (Soederhjelm 1999) J/AJ/126/2048 : NStars project: the Northern Sample. I. (Gray+, 2003) J/AJ/132/161 : NStars project: The southern sample. I. (Gray+, 2006) J/A+A/464/377 : HIP binaries with radial velocities (Frankowski+, 2007) http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astrometry/optical-IR-prod/wds/orb6 : Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars (ORB6) homepage http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astrometry/optical-IR-prod/wds/int4 : Fourth Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars (INT4) homepage Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 h RAh ? Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 4- 5 I2 min RAm ? Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 7- 11 F5.2 s RAs ? Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 13 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 14- 15 I2 deg DEd ? Degree of Declination (J2000) 17- 18 I2 arcmin DEm ? Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 20- 23 F4.1 arcsec DEs ? Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 25- 30 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name (Cat. I/239) (1) 32- 37 I6 --- HD ? HD name (Cat. III/135) 39- 43 F5.2 mag Vmag ? Hipparcos V band magnitude 45- 49 F5.3 mag B-V Hipparcos (B-V) color 51- 56 F6.2 mas plx ? Hipparcos parallax 58- 59 I2 --- r_plx [12]? Reference for plx 61- 64 F4.2 mas e_plx ? The 1σ uncertainty in plx 66- 71 F6.2 mas vLplx ? van Leeuwen 2007 (Cat. I/311) parallax 73- 76 F4.2 mas e_vLplx ? The 1σ uncertainty in vLplx 78- 85 A8 --- SpT1 MK Spectral type 88- 89 I2 --- r_SpT1 ? Spectral type reference. See refs.dat file
Note (1): 0 for Sun with no coordinates.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Type CPM companion type: Associated or Refuted 12- 21 A10 --- WDS The WDS identifier (Cat. B/wds) 23- 29 A7 --- Disc WDS discoverer designation 31- 34 A4 --- m_Disc WDS pair identifier 36- 45 A10 --- PName Primary name (HD or HIP) 47 A1 --- f_PName [a] New companion discovered by this effort. 49- 52 I4 arcsec rho CPM candidate companion separation 54- 56 I3 deg theta CPM candidate companion position angle 58- 64 F7.2 --- Epoch CPM candidate companion epoch of observation 66- 80 A15 --- Name CPM candidate companion name 82- 83 I2 --- Code Reason code for association/refutation (3) 85- 90 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of the system (added by CDS)
Note (3): Reason code as follows: 1 = Photometric distance to the CPM candidate matches the Hipparcos distance to the primary (see Table 5). 2 = Published parallax and proper motion for the CPM candidate matches the corresponding primary's values from Hipparcos 3 = Spectroscopic distance to the CPM candidate matches the Hipparcos distance to the primary. 4 = Known companion with a published orbit (each of these were seen as comoving diffraction spikes). 5 = Published evidence, see Section 4.3. 6 = Companionship implied by proximity to the primary and a matching, large proper motion. 7 = Measurements of the pair in the WDS confirm orbital motion. 8 = While the proper motion is similar enough to enable selection as a possible CPM companion, the numerical value for the candidate in catalogs (Hog et al., 1998, Cat. I/259; Salim & Gould, 2003, Cat. J/ApJ/582/1011; Zacharias et al., 2004, Cat. I/289; Lepine & Shara, 2005, Cat. I/298; Hipparcos, Cat. I/239) are significantly different from the primary's Hipparcos values, ruling out a physical association. 9 = The candidate companion is a non-stellar artifact such as a plate defect. 10 = Photometric distance to the CPM candidate is significantly different than the primary's Hipparcos distance (see Table 5).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Type CPM companion type (1) 5- 6 A2 --- --- [HD] 8- 13 I6 --- HD Primary name 15- 17 I3 arcsec rho ? Separation 19- 26 A8 --- SpType CPM candidate MK spectral type 28- 29 I2 --- r_SpType ? SpType reference. See refs.dat file. 31- 34 I4 mas/yr pmRA ? CPM candidate proper motion along RA 36- 39 I4 mas/yr pmDE ? CPM candidate proper motion along DE 41- 42 I2 --- r_pmRA ? Proper motion reference. See refs.dat file. 44- 48 F5.2 mag Vmag CCD V-band magnitude of the CPM candidate 50- 51 I2 --- r_Vmag Vmag reference. See refs.dat file. 53- 57 F5.2 mag Rmag ? CCD R-band magnitude of the CPM candidate 59- 60 I2 --- r_Rmag ? Rmag reference. See refs.dat file. 62- 66 F5.2 mag Imag ? CCD I-band magnitude of the CPM candidate 68- 69 I2 --- r_Imag ? Imag reference. See refs.dat file. 71 I1 --- No ? Observation number 73- 77 F5.2 mag Jmag CPM candidate 2MASS J-band magnitude 79- 83 F5.2 mag Hmag CPM candidate 2MASS H-band magnitude 85- 89 F5.2 mag Ksmag CPM candidate 2MASS Ks-band magnitude 91- 95 F5.1 pc Dist CPM candidate distance 97 A1 --- f_Dist [abc] Flag on Dist (2) 99-102 F4.1 pc e_Dist Dist error 104-109 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of the system (added by CDS)
Note (1): Type as follows: PAC = Physically associated CPM companions RCC = Refuted CPM candidates Note (2): Flag as follows: a = While this distance is too low compared to the primary's Hipparcos distance of 24.6pc, the companion is a roughly equal-brightness binary. Adjusting the Hipparcos and 2MASS magnitudes accordingly changes the distance estimate to 24.0±3.7, a much better match with the distance to the primary. b = See Section 4.3 for a discussion of these photometric distance estimates and the status of these companions. c = Even though the companion is HIP 110719, its Hipparcos astrometry has large errors, necessitating the photometric distance check.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- WDS The WDS identification (Cat. B/wds) 12- 18 A7 --- Disc WDS discoverer designation 20- 23 A4 --- m_WDS WDS pair identifier 25 A1 --- f_WDS [a] Flag for HD 200560 (1) 27- 36 A10 --- PName Primary name (HD or HIP) 38- 40 I3 --- Nobs Number of observations 42- 44 I3 deg theta Companion position angle 46- 50 F5.1 arcsec rho Companion separation 52- 55 I4 --- Epoch Companion epoch of observation 57- 62 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of the system (added by CDS)
Note (1): a = While the AB pair has an orbital solution in ORB6 and is likely physically bound, it is listed here to identify that component B is only optically associated with the sample star, which is component C. As noted in the next line, the blinking of archival images also helps identify AC as an optical pair. Thus, the physical pair AB is not associated with sample star C.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 I6 --- HD ? HD name 8 A1 --- f_HD [cde] Flag on HD (1) 10- 15 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of primary 17 A1 --- H59 [CGOX] Primary identification of companions in the Hipparcos catalog (2) 19- 25 F7.2 mas/yr pmRA Hipparcos proper motion along RA (3) 27- 30 F4.2 mas/yr e_pmRA Uncertainty in pmRA 32- 39 F8.2 mas/yr pmDE Hipparcos proper motion along DE 41- 44 F4.2 mas/yr e_pmDE Uncertainty in pmDE 46- 51 F6.1 mas/yr pmRA2 ? Tycho-2 proper motion along RA (3) 53- 55 F3.1 mas/yr e_pmRA2 ? Uncertainty in pmRA2 57- 63 F7.1 mas/yr pmDE2 ? Tycho-2 proper motion along DE 65- 67 F3.1 mas/yr e_pmDE2 ? Uncertainty in pmDE2 69- 72 F4.1 --- sigma ? Significance of difference between Hipparcos Tycho-2 proper motions (4) 74 A1 --- MK05 [Y] if proper-motion binary in Makarov & Kaplan 2005, Cat. J/AJ/129/2420 76 A1 --- F07 [Y] if proper-motion binary in Frankowski et al., 2007, Cat. J/A+A/464/377) 78- 80 A3 --- St Companion status (5) 82 I1 --- Note Companion reason note (6) 84- 89 I6 --- HIPc ? HIP number of companion (added at CDS)
Note (1): Flag as follows: c = Wide companion, 319" away from HD 7693. d = Wide companion, 185" away from HD 53705. e = Wide companion, 756" away from HIP 36357. Note (2): Multiplicity flag as follows: C = Double stars resolved by Hipparcos as separated components that could be modeled as single stars, usually with an assumed common parallax. G = Accelerating proper motion or higher-order terms. O = Orbital solutions X = Stochastic solutions (probably astrometric binaries with short period) Further details are given in the Double and Multiple Systems Annex of Hipparcos. See also section 3.2 for further details. Note (3): µα*cos[δ]. Note (4): Computed as the root sum squared of the difference in each axis divided by the corresponding larger error. Note (5): Status as follows: YES = physically associated companion; MAY = unconfirmed candidate retained for further investigations. Note (6): Reason note as follows: 1 = Visual and/or spectroscopic binary with an orbital solution. 2 = Nearby companion is likely responsible for the proper motion acceleration (see Section 4.3). 3 = Hipparcos G flag and the χ2 test in Frankowski et al. (2007, Cat. J/A+A/464/377) suggest an unseen companion, but because the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 proper motions differ by less than 3σ, this is retained as a candidate for further investigations. 4 = See individual system notes in Section 4.3. 5 = Hipparcos "G" flag and a greater than 3σ difference in proper motion indicate an unseen companion. 6 = Nearby companion with evidence of orbital motion based on WDS measurements is likely responsible for the proper motion acceleration. 7 = Radial velocity variations indicate a spectroscopic binary, but not enough observations exist to derive an orbit. 8 = Greater than 3σ difference in proper motion is the only evidence of a companion. The companion is considered physical if it also passed the χ2 test in Frankowski et al. (2007, Cat. J/A+A/464/377), otherwise is retained as a candidate. 9 = Nearby companion with matching photometric distance is likely responsible for the proper motion acceleration (see Table 10).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table11.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 19 A19 --- Type Visual orbit type 21- 30 A10 --- WDS The WDS identification 32- 37 I6 --- HD HD name 39- 44 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name 46- 59 A14 --- Disc WDS discoverer designation 61- 64 I4 --- Nobs ? Number of observations 66- 68 I3 yr DelT ? Observational time span 70- 77 F8.2 --- Per ? Orbital period 79 A1 --- x_Per Units for Per (y = years, d = days) 81 I1 --- G Orbit grade from ORB6, (1=definitive to 5=indeterminate) (1) 83- 90 A8 --- r_G Orbit reference from ORB6, see refs.dat file (1) 92 I1 --- SB [1,2]? single-lined (1) or double-lined (2) SB 94- 96 A3 --- Status Companion status (3)
Note (1): ORB6 = Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars, available on: http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astrometry/optical-IR-prod/wds/orb6 Note (3): Status as follows: YES = physically associated companion; NO = unrelated field star; MAY = unconfirmed candidate retained for further investigations.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table13.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 h RAh ? Sample star Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) (1) 4- 5 I2 min RAm ? Sample star Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 7- 11 F5.2 s RAs ? Sample star Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 13 A1 --- DE- Sign of sample star Declination (J2000) (1) 14- 15 I2 deg DEd ? Sample star Degree of Declination (J2000) 17- 18 I2 arcmin DEm ? Sample star Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 20- 23 F4.1 arcsec DEs ? Sample star Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 25- 30 I6 --- HD ? HD name 32- 46 A15 --- OName Other name (1) 48 A1 --- N [N] System has specific note in Section 4.3. See notes.dat file 50- 56 A7 --- Comp Companion identification 58 A1 --- f_Comp [abc] Flag on Comp (2) 60- 67 F8.2 --- Per ? Orbital period of the pair 69 A1 --- x_Per Units for Per (y = years, d = days, h = hours) 71- 77 F7.2 arcsec Asep ? Angular separation between the components 79- 86 F8.2 AU Lsep ? Projected linear separation (3) 88 A1 --- St [YM] Companionship status: confirmed (Y) or candidate (M) 90 A1 --- VB [OPU] Visual binary orbit quality code (5) 92 A1 --- SB [12V] Spectroscopic binary code (6) 94 A1 --- CP [M-T] Common proper motion code (7) 96 A1 --- OT [ELM] Other unresolved companion code (8) 98 A1 --- CH [SV] Companions seen by CHARA LBOI (9) 100-105 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of the system (added by CDS) (1)
Note (1): Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have "0" for HIP number and no coordinates. Note (2): Flag as follows: a = The sample star is not the system's primary, which is identified as component A below. b = The brightest component of the system is HD 25998, but is designated as component E in the WDS. Component A is the wide CPM companion, HD 25893, which is about 2 magnitudes fainter and itself a visual binary. We have retained the component designations of the WDS, so the fainter visual pair is AB and the wide CPM companion is E. WDS components C and D are optical, and E itself might have a close companion, as evidenced by its accelerating proper motion (see Table 8.) c = WDS lists these entries for HD 200595, a bright binary 153" away from the sample star HD 200560, but one that is not physically associated with it. HD 200560 is itself is a close CPM pair and listed in the WDS as CD. We have retained the WDS designations, which makes C and D the only physically associated components of this system. Note (3): If Asep is empty, Lsep contains the semi-major axis from orbital solutions; it corresponds to Asep otherwise. Note (5): Code as follows: O = robust orbit of grade 1, 2, 3, or 8; P = preliminary orbit of grade 4 or 5; U = unresolved photocentric-motion orbit. Note (6): Code as follows: 1 = single-lined; 2 = double-lined; V = radial-velocity variations indicating a companion, but no orbital solution. Note (7): Code as follows: M = close pair with matching proper motions; O = pair with evidence of orbital motion; P = companion with matching proper motion and photometric distance; R = close pair with published evidence of companionship; S = companion with matching proper motion and spectral type identification that is consistent with the primary's distance; T = pair with independently-measured matching proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes. Note (8): Code as follows: E = eclipsing binary; L = companion indicated by an overluminous star; M = companion implied by proper motion acceleration. Note (9): Code as follows: S = SFP (separated fringe packet) (Raghavan et al. 2010a, in prep.); V = visibility-modulation binaries (Raghavan et al. 2009ApJ...690..394R, 2010b, in prep.).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table17.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 I6 --- HD ? HD name 8- 13 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name (0 for Sun) 15- 16 A2 --- Comp Component identification 18- 25 A8 --- SpT2 MK spectral type 27- 28 A2 --- r_SpT2 Reference for SpType. See refs.dat file 30- 33 F4.2 solMass Mass ? Stellar mass 35- 36 A2 --- r_Mass Reference for Mass. See refs.dat file 38- 42 F5.2 [Sun] [Fe/H] ? Metallicity 44- 45 A2 --- r_[Fe/H] Reference for [Fe/H]. See refs.dat file 47- 52 F6.3 [---] logRHK ? Chromospheric emission measure log(R'HK) 54- 55 A2 --- r_logRHK Reference for logRHK. See refs.dat file
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table18.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 13 A13 --- CompName Companion name (HD or HIP NNNNNN AA) 15- 29 A15 --- OName Alternative name 31- 44 A14 --- SpType MK spectral type 46- 47 A2 --- r_SpType Reference for SpType. See refs.dat file 49- 52 F4.2 solMass Mass ? Companion mass 54 A1 --- f_Mass [a] Flag on Mass (1) 56- 57 A2 --- r_Mass Reference for Mass. See refs.dat file 59- 64 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of the system (added by CDS)
Note (1): a = Estimated using mass-sum of Aa+Ab from DM91 (Duquennoy & Mayor, 1991A&A...248..485D) and mass of Aa from Nordstrom et al. (2004, Cat V/117).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Ref Reference identification 10- 28 A19 --- BibCode Bibcode 30- 50 A21 --- Aut Author's name 52-199 A148 --- Com Comment
Byte-by-byte Description of file: notes.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 I6 --- HIP Hipparcos name of the system (added at CDS) 8- 13 I6 --- HD HD number of the star 15- 84 A70 --- Text Text of note
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 23-Sep-2010
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